Using the same piece, 12 strategies for playing I-ii-V I and I-IV-V-1 are demonstrated. These accompaniment ideas/variations could be used to embroider any piece.
This chapter is for intermediate keyboardists who can read music but improvise hesitantly or barely at all. It begins the process of thinking in music, and building a music vocabulary using a simple song.
Chapter two will take what we’ve learned in this chapter and work at playing the song 12 different ways.
Would you like to become an accomplished improviser? Do you have a burning desire to help your congregation sing with energy and conviction, and bring out the theology in worship songs? Do you aspire to create interesting bass and melody lines, or captivating harmonies?
Would you like to collaborate with a band, contribute ideas, develop your skills as an arranger, and be able to transpose any worship song into another key?
Would you love to have at your fingertips a wealth of ideas on what to do, how to proceed, and concrete ways to develop yourself improvisationally?
Then this book is for you!
Learn, Integrate, Apply. In this book, techniques will be clearly explained so you can learn them. An abundance of musical examples will provide you with opportunities to test and try them, and learn how they function in real musical situations. Then integrate them into your thinking. Absorb them. Let them become part of you. Get the shapes of the sounds into your very fingers. Finally, apply them. Use them. See what you can do. Graft and transplant them into part of a worship song or a complete arrangement of your own devising.
A major objective of this book and series is to provide you with the tools to build your own musical style (language) for the glory of God.
For many years I have been teaching keyboard improvisation at Biola University, an evangelical university of 6000 in the Los Angeles area. Most of my students are music majors whose primary instrument is the piano, undergrads with “classical chops” who possess quite a bit of technique. Many read music notation fluently. The majority, however, cannot improvise, cannot think in music, do not have a practical grasp of how sounds relate (function with one another), or do so in a simplistic, halting fashion. They don’t know what to do. They have not experienced the freedom inherent in improvisation.They are most comfortable with notated music.
On the other hand, I’ve had other students who are pretty good improvisers with real imagination, but may read traditional notation slowly and hesitantly. The differences between the two, in both background and aptitude, can be startling, extreme! The classical folk read. The improvisers seek to invent. However, the improvisers, too, are limited in their understanding of how music works. They have meager resources and lack the musical concepts to develop their ideas effectively. This is my attempt to meet the needs of each of these diverse learners.
I’ve discovered different kinds and levels of approaches for different students. Many times I’ve gone back to my office after a lesson and have added another step or example to improve clarity. In other words, these materials have undergone much thought, testing,and revision. My sincere thanks to you, my students, for helping me understand your needs and desires better. I’ve learned much from you.
Problem of Transitory Worship Songs. A major problem concerning the transitory nature of contemporary worship music needs addressing. I appreciate that young people, particularly, would like the book to contain the very latest, “hot” worship songs. But this doesn’t make much sense for a book of this sort. Unfortunately, many of the latest songs tend to last a couple of years and they’re gone. Nobody seems to be singing them anymore. The “turn over” rate is astonishing and unrelenting. Strange as it may seem, if this book were to major in current worship songs, it would quickly become outdated!
Therefore, I’ve chosen well-known hymns and worship choruses with at least some proven staying power—songs students may know and continue to us.and are free of copyright protection. However, in actual lessons and where ever possible, I have incorporated songs when students exclaim, “I love that song!” These are their songs of heart-felt worship. I’ve learned they are really important to them. So I often respond, “Let’s look at that song too.” It could be an Asian or Latino song. Students love this! It’s motivating.
Acoustic Piano. This book does not address synthesizer capabilities or idiomatic ways of playing strings or B3 organ sounds—important skills. It has grown out of teaching a keyboard lesson to a student in a room with an acoustic piano. That’s it!
Intermediate to Advanced Keyboardist. These books are aimed toward college-level students who have acquired at least a minimum of two semesters of music theory. I expect these volumes to be useful to both undergraduate and graduate keyboardists. They deal predominantly with harmonic possibilities which are a foundational building block, less with rhythm. The four books in the series gradually increase in difficulty. Books 1 and 2 begin at the intermediate level and morph to a semi-advanced level. Books 3 and 4 are mostly advanced. In total, about 1100 examples are presented.
Easy Examples. Detailed Approach. Achievable Chunks. Even if individuals may not know much music theory and their sight-reading may be deficient, the books should still provide solid value. Why? Many examples are extremely easy to read. Moreover, the detailed approach, replete with an abundance of music examples and explanatory comments, communicates in simple English what is going on musically and theoretically. It attempts to break down harmonic and improvisational concepts into small, achievable chunks. You should also know that I have a comparatively small hand. Some 10ths I can play, others I have to roll. Therefore 10ths may occur more sparingly here than in other books. Good news if you have small hands!
Fulfilling a Promise. In another worship book I wrote, The New Worship:Straight Talk on Music and the Church (Baker, 2001), I called for an outpouring of worship materials in all areas, including music, the dramatic and visual arts, and works that would embrace the theoretical, practical, and pedagogical. I pledged myself to contribute to the effort (p.35). These keyboard volumes are part of my effort to make good on that promise. My desire is to bless the thirsty worship keyboardist.If another contributor can borrow from what I have written, improve upon it, and advance the field, terrific! Nothing would make me happier than to see the Church built up, riseup, and offer a paean of praise to our Lord Jesus Christ.
No Greater, Higher Function. Without doubt, many wonderful, marvelous things can be done with music. But I feel confident in declaring this without reservation. There is no greater, no higher function that music can have than to lead people in worship, and toproclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
In seeking to hone our improvisational capacities, the keyboard has advantages over single-line instruments, for it allows us to think more comprehensively about music—not only melodically but also harmonically. Ideally, we need an…
Abundance of Harmonic Possibilities. Why is that important? We may be searching arduously for the exactly right, fitting sonority in a piece. Obviously, our chances of finding it are much better if we have a slew of many-hued sounds in our experiential memory to draw from. Even more fundamentally, the keyboard can help us understand chord structure and chord function. And as we make music physically with our fingers, the theory behind music becomes tactile, concrete, alive—less abstract.
Abundance of Examples. The two volumes employ well over a 1000 examples. Three kinds of examples are employed: (1) you’ll find abstract examples that express how a particular chord or harmonic relationship can function; (2) then it is demonstrated a number of times in different worship songs so you can see it’s potential and usefulness; (3) finally, you’re asked to “try it,” to apply it yourself in a piece where I know it can function effectively.
Transposition. Keyboard transposition is stressed in this book. Why? The repetition of playing a chord or short phrase (it’s various spacings and functions), over and over again in various keys, helps to establish it firmly in our inner ear and fingers. The goal is to acquire the actual “feel” of the chord or relationship, so we don’t have to think hard about it. A seventh, a ninth, or any kind of extension, has got to become as easy and effortless as playing a C major chord.
Transposition solidifies the thinking and hearing process. It tests whether we can apply concepts in another key. It forces us to think in new keys, and get “command” of those new keys. You may find that you can think better in some keys than others! We’ll keep our transposition examples really short (usually four measures), and we’ll use well-known songs you probably know. That will make it more fun and relevant.
Modulation. Once we can play songs in different keys, the desire emerges to have the capacity to fashion effective transitions, to be able to modulate and to craft segues within and between pieces. Modulations that lead to the coveted goal of achieving meaningful, flowing, seamless worship can usually be handled more competently by keyboardists than guitarists. So we’ll need detailed, specific training in this area.
Guitar Keys. In worship contexts today, guitarists (who often rule!) tend to avoid keys with flats. They prefer keys with sharps. Therefore I limit the range of keys to those you will tend to use most frequently. Once we can think in the keys of C, D, E (especially), F, G, and A, it’s relatively easy to extend our thinking to the flat keys. Furthermore, this limitation serves to reduce the “brain load” and allows us to cover more material, yet with the confidence we are truly grasping it.
Sing and Play. The ability to be able to sing and play simultaneously is invaluable when leading or accompanying worship—and it’s challenging! It takes extra energy and concentration to maintain good pitch, tone, and congregational eye contact while singing, and yet play fluently and rhythmically, barely looking at the keys. A higher level of keyboard mastery is demanded. We’ll be developing this skill along the way. I’ll supply the words to many songs so you can practice singing and playing.
I expect to post a greatly revised keyboard improv book in a couple of months. It’s a major update of the keyboard book mentioned on my home page. The two volume effort will contain, in total, more than 1000 music examples and over 500 pages. My intent, for now, is to offer the materials free of charge. Teachers and students will be able to download, make copies of any pages. A generous copyright notice should appear with the work. Volume One will become available first. Below, read the Forward for Volume One. I’ll be posting more info on this project in the days to come.
Would you like to become an accomplished keyboard improviser? How about the ability to play instantly any worship song you hear, transpose it to another key? Or do you aspire to create captivating harmonies, arresting melodies and bass lines?
Are you motivated by a burning desire to help your congregation sing out with energy and conviction, and to bring out the words and theology in worship songs? (I must admit, this is a personal passion of mine.) Would you love to have at your fingertips an abundance of ideas on what to do, how to proceed, and concrete ways to develop yourself? Then this book is for you!
For many years I have been teaching keyboard improvisation to music majors whose primary instrument is the piano at Biola University, an evangelical university of 6000 in the Los Angeles area. Many of these students, guys and girls with “classical chops”, possess quite a bit of technique, and read traditional notation fluently. The majority, however, cannot improvise, cannot think in music, or do so in a simplistic, halting manner. They don’t know what to do. They are most comfortable with written-out music.
On the other hand, I’ve had other students who are pretty good improvisers and have real imagination, but read traditional notation slowly and hesitantly, and are very limited in their understanding of how music works. The differences between the two, in both background and aptitude, can be startling, even extreme! This is my attempt to meet the needs of all of these diverse learners.
I’ve discovered approaches that work for different kinds of students. Many times I’ve gone back to my office after a lesson and have added another step, another example, to improve clarity. In other words, be assured these materials have undergone much scrutiny, thought, testing, and revision. My sincere thanks to you, my students, who have helped me understand your needs and desires better. I’ve learned much from you.
A big problem! I understand young people, particularly, would like the book to contain the very latest, “hot” worship songs as examples. But this doesn’t make much sense for a book of this sort. The latest songs tend to last a couple of years and they’re gone. Nobody seems interested in singing them anymore. The “turn over” rate is simply astonishing and it’s unrelenting! Therefore, I’ve chosen well-known hymns and worship choruses with at least some proven staying power… stuff you’re likely to continue to use.
The book is aimed primarily at college-level students who have acquired at least a minimum of two semesters of music theory. And you should also know that this book deals predominantly with harmonic possibilities, and less with rhythm.
Nevertheless, this book should be helpful to any intelligent intermediate to advanced keyboardist, even if you may not know much music theory and consider your sight reading skill deficient. Why? First, many examples are extremely easy to read. Second, the step-by-step approach, replete with an abundance of music examples and explanatory written comments, communicates in simple English what is going on musically and theoretically in worship pieces. It breaks down harmonic and improvisational concepts into small, achievable chunks.
In another worship book I wrote, The New Worship: Straight Talk on Music and the Church (Baker, 2001), I called for an outpouring of worship materials in all areas, including music, the dramatic and visual arts, and works that would embrace the theoretical, practical, and pedagogical. I pledged myself to contribute to the effort (p.35). These two keyboard volumes are part of my effort to make good on that promise.
Finally, if another writer/contributor can borrow from what I have written, improve upon it, and advance the field, wonderful! Nothing would make me happier than to see the Church built up, rise up, and offer a paean of praise to our Lord Jesus Christ.
Music Industry takes a Nosedive
The music industry is experiencing a plummeting nosedive. Between 1999 and 2014, music record sales have dropped 70%, resulting in a loss of 14 billion dollars in income. More individuals than ever are consuming music, however, fewer and fewer are willing to pay for it. The result is that music itself has lost value, has become less valuable.
In the past, people were forced to buy a CD of a dozen songs for $15-20 dollars for their personal music library. Today they can buy the one song they really want for $1 via itunes. CD use is becoming something of the past as each year the volume of CDs sold drops. In 2016, Walmart, the largest seller of CDs in North America, is reducing its store space for CDs by 50%.
Music Streaming Services Ascending
Instead music streaming services such as Spotify, Pandora, and Utube are becoming the mainstay. The result is that an immense catalogue of music, previously out of reach to the individual, is becoming available for a few dollars or cents, or for free. With the plummeting of music sales, recording studio are closing and professional recording musicians find their services increasingly unwanted. In Hollywood, professional musicians are rebelling against music unions and their unions dues because they can’t find sufficient work. Many no longer see the value of the unions –“What are they doing for us?”
Heightened Awareness of the Worship MInistry
In contrast,the worship ministry in our churches has been accorded more importance than in the past. It is recognized as valuable. Worship can play an important role in the spiritual development of believers and in attracting new worshipers and seekers. Pastors and worship leaders today are the most visible leaders in the church. More time is being accorded to worship. Consequently worship leaders are in greater demand than ever before.
Recording studio musicians, given the stress of paying their bills, are often seeking part-time work in churches. They desire some form of regular income to supplement the “feast or famine” lifestyle they experience in the commercial music industry. Furthermore, the excitement of touring across the country with a band, soon fades. Musicians wishing to settle down and start a family understand they need to be able to spend time with their spouse and children.
The upshot to all of this is that, for musicians, a worship ministry in the church is looking more attractive. Though less spectacular, it appears to offer more long-range stability — even more personal meaning. Now there are serious problems facing the worship ministry today, and working in the church is uniquely challenging itself –it’s not for the faint of heart — but let’s save that for another time.
To find the new revision, go to pull down Home menu, put the words “Fine Arts” in the search box.
These revisions of lecture PowerPoints were posted on Sept 15, 2014; intended to supplement the book, People in the Presence of God.
01g (key word) “Identical”
01j (key words) “Discontinuity” vs “Continuity”
03 (key word) “Patriarchs” and “Parents”
09b (keyword) “Sinai”
Use the search box to find these PowerPoints quickly.
Use search box. Write in word, “sabbath” or the full title, “01i Understanding the Sabbath”
What are its Old Testament meanings? Did Jesus correct some misperceptions?
How should we think of it today?
A PowerPoint supplement for the book, People in the Presence of God. 33 slides. Published Sept 15, 2014.
A look at the sabbath, it’s meanings in the Old Testament, corrections in understanding by Jesus, and its relevance for families today and contemporary worship. Does it apply to Israel only? Is it of universal scope in application for all of humanity? Saturday? Sunday? Is the sabbath mainly for devotion to God or is it intended for us too?
33 slides. Downloadable PowerPoint with full formatting. See square icon.
Supplement for the book, People in the Presence of God.