CONTENTS (Theory Bk Vol III)

28. Creating Backing Vocals

29. Creating Intros

30. Creating Outros, Turnarounds, Loops

31. Establishing the New Key—Modulation I

32. Smoothing the Transition—Modulation II

33. Creating String Parts

34. Leading the Worship Band

35. Projects/Exams

Appendix: Chord Catalogue

Generated by Dr. Barry Liesch at Biola University

Draft in Progress, May 2012

32 Modulation II—Smoothing the Transition TBk3

Modulation within and between pieces — a way to create interest, energy, and a sense of flow.  Learn how to do it.

Modulation, the ability to segue within or between pieces with a similar or different meter, is discussed and demonstrated. The progression ii-V-I of the new key helps smooth modulations.

Learn how to change the mood during the modulation transition: triumphant to contemplative, or contemplative to triumphant. Modulations involving minor keys is included. Examples and exercises.

Revised 5.2014.  33 pages, 49 examples.

To download, click the download sign at bottom-left corner.

31 Modulation I—Establishing the New Key TBk3

This chapter focuses on the basics, the beginning level. The most basic thing to master is the ability to find the V chord (or pivot chord) of the new key, for it will propel us securely into the new key. Any kind of V chord may be useable: V, Vsus, four over five, and Vsus9 is particularly good as it smooths the transition more than a dominant seventh.

We’ll work on mastering several kinds of V chords, and concentrate on modulations up a 1/2 and whole step. Examples, exercises for practicing, assignments.

Revised 2.2014.  30 pages, 55 examples.


30 Creating Outros, Turnarounds, Loops TBk3

Different kinds of outros: (1) deceptive cadence; (2) iv-I; (3) rhythmic fade out; (4) walking down to I. Turnarounds: various versions (simple triads to complex extensions) of vi-ii-V-I.  Loops: VII-IV-I (a favorite in African American churches).


29 Music Introductions TBk3

Different ways to improvise/write music introductions: groove on the tonic, arpeggiate the V chord; use cycle of fifths; walk up to the tonic; pull out a harmonic progression already embedded in the piece & use it to build an introduction; capture/use a melodic motive already in the piece.


28 Creating Backing Vocals Tbk3

Various techniques for writing/improvising backing vocals: double the melody in women & men parts (called “bookends”), use close position, employ 3rd and 6ths, (and more modern) employ 4th and 5ths, punctuate the texture with vocal spikes/hits.  In comtemporary stylings, the phrases are often shorter with quicker cutoffs, and often little or not vibrato.  Included: a check list for backing singers.